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The capital of Rajasthan, Jaipur is most natural place to begin a discovery of Rajasthans multifaceted attractions.
The city actually takes its name from a princely state called Jaipur State that existed sometime during the 12th century. This state was home to the Kachwaha Rajput clan. The state was founded in the year 1097 AD by a man named Dulaha Raya, who came from Gwalior. They drove out the local Meenas and the Bargujar Rajput chiefs and settled over here.

Founder of Jaipur - Maharaja Jai Singh II

Maharaja Jai Singh II, Founder of Jaipur Jaipur, the pink city was founded in 1727 AD by Maharaja Jai Singh II who ruled from 1699-1744. Initially his capital was Amber, which lies at a distance of 11kms from Jaipur.
After several battles with Marathas, Jai Singh was keen on the security aspect of the city. Due to this reason, he focused on his scientific and cultural interests to make a brilliant city. Being, a lover of mathematics and science, Jai Singh sought advice from Vidyadhar Bhattacharya, a Brahmin scholar of Bengal, to aid him design the city architecture. Vidyadhar referred the ancient Indian literature on astronomy, books of Ptolemy and Euclid, and discussed the plan with the King.
With a strategic plan, the construction of the city started in 1727. It took around 4 years to complete the major palaces, roads and square.

Architecture of Jaipur

Jaipur is rich in its cultural and architectural beauty, which can be traced in the various historical and aesthetic places that reside in the city. This city of victory really wins the hearts of the people with its splendid charisma.
The city was built following the principles of Shilpa Shastra, the Indian Architecture.
The directions of each street and market are east to West and North to South. The Eastern gate is called Suraj (Sun) Pol, while the Western gate is called Chand (Moon) Pol. There are only three gates facing East, West, and North including the Northern gate (known as Zorawar Singh gate) which faces toward the ancestral capital of Amber, while many gates face South.
Jaipur, Principal Street, 1875 Although the present city has expanded from outside of its walls, the original planning was within the walls. The gates used to be closed at sunset and opened at sunrise. Almost all Northern Indian towns of that period presented a chaotic picture of narrow twisting lanes, a confusion of run-down forts, temples, palaces, and temporary shacks that bore no resemblance at all to the principles set out in Hindu architectural manuals which call for strict geometric planning.
According to that time, architecture of the town was very advanced and certainly the best in Indian subcontinent. In 1853, when Prince of Wales visited Jaipur, the whole city was painted in Pink color to welcome him. Still, the neat and broadly laid-out avenues, painted in pink provide a magical charm to the city.

Various Rulers of Jaipur

The history of Jaipur is also enriched by the lineage of kings who have succeeded Jai Singh.

Sawai Pratap Singh (1764 - 1803)

After Sawai Jai Singh, At a young age of fourteen years Sawai Pratap Singh became the Maharaja of Jaipur.His year of reign was 1778 - 1803.
During his reign of twenty-five years Jaipur city had undergone both progress and failures at the same time. Main threats were Maratha and Mughal rulers for whom he had to face recurring fear and a grave drainage of funds.

Sawai Ram Singh II (1835 to 1880)

The name of Sawai Ram Singh II also has found its place in the history of Jaipur. He was quite dissimilar from other rules in all respects. He dominated from 1835 to 1880. He ardently follows the rituals of Vaishaivism.
Ram Singh II was a benevolent king who had taken the initiative of reforming various ill practices of the then kingdom. For example during his ruling, slavery, child infanticide was abolished. Also during his reign Sati ritual was legally banned from Jaipur. The year was 1839.
He also was a music lover and played Veena, a `multi-stringed instrument`. Close association with the British rulers has enabled them to beautify the city with gaslights, water works. Broad roads, Sanskrit collages, Maharaja School of Arts and Crafts, the medical college also are built during this time.

Madao Singh II (1861 - 1922)

Ram Singh died heirless With the death of Ram Singh II his adopted son Madao Singh II ascended the throne in the year 1880. However he took the onus of bringing progress in the city of Jaipur. It is connected with commercial zones. Universities, Hospitals, the Secretariat, residential colonies and colleges were constructed.

Sawai Man Singh II (1911 1970)

Madho Singh also adopted his nephew named Kanwar Mormukat Singh. He was the younger son of `Thakur Sowai Singh of Isarda`. Kanwar Mormukat Singh became popular as Sawai Man Singh II. Sawai Man Singh II established his domination from 1922 to 1949.
In the post independence era, initiatives were taken to transform the position of princely states of India. Thus Jaipur was merged with other Rajput states like Jaisalmer, Jodhpur, and Bikaner and thus Greater Rajasthan was formed.
In the year 1956, Jaipur got bestowed upon with the status of capital of Rajasthan state. Till today Jaipur has retained its charm and spectacle by preserving the remnants of its regal heritage.

Maharaja Bhawani Singh (1931 - Present)

Maharaja Bhawani Singh, Jaipur Sawai Bhawani Singh Bahadur (born 1931) was the last titular Maharaja of Jaipur and head of the Kachwaha clan of Rajputs. The title technically ended when royal entitlements were abolished along with privy purses through a constitutional amendment in 1971. However, the erstwhile maharaja is considered a political, cultural, and religious icon in modern Rajasthan, and he is sometimes still referred to in the media as His Highness, The Maharaja of Jaipur.
He married Princess Padmini Devi of Sirmur, with whom he has a daughter, Princess Diya Kumari.
In 1997, Princess Diya married Narendra Singh Rajawat, a commoner and distant cousin who had been a member of the household staff of the Maharaja of Jaipur. He is a son of Thakur Buddha Singh. They have a daughter, Gorvi Devi (born 1999) and a son, Kumar Padmanabh Singh. The latter was adopted in 2002 by his maternal grandparents and is now heir to the throne of Jaipur.